An Affective, Formative and Data-Driven Feedback Intervention in Teacher Education

Eric Mendelson, Jody S. Piro


Educators and researchers have long contemplated the most effective ways to provide feedback to students, to build sustainable feedback practices, and to establish feedback literacy. While a considerable amount of research, theory, and practical approaches exist to support the effect of formative feedback practices, less research exists on the impact of affective elements related to feedback. This study set out to explore pre-service teachers’ perceptions of a feedback intervention that included affective, formative, and data-driven aspects. A mixed-reality simulation environment was selected as the context for the study, and eight pre-service teachers performing in the simulation were selected as participants. This qualitative multicase study included three rounds of simulation observations, a feedback intervention, and interviews. Data were analyzed using a thematic analysis framework. Findings showed that the application of confirmation, empathy, and reciprocity in the feedback intervention prompted the development of helping relationships that promoted personal growth. Humanism became a useful framework for these emergent findings. In addition, findings included participants’ preferences for formative feedback over data-feedback, particularly formative feedback that introduced engaging language, purposeful organization, and details and examples. Lastly, findings revealed participants’ perceived personal growth in feedback literacy, especially in managing emotions and committing to the feedback process.

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Copyright (c) 2022 Eric Mendelson, Jody S Piro

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Journal of Curriculum and Teaching ISSN 1927-2677 (Print) ISSN 1927-2685 (Online)  Email:

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