Pre-Task Planning Time Strategies for the Production of Request and Refusal Speech Acts in L2 English

Hadi Maghsoud


There is a growing consensus that implementation of planning time exerts an effect on oral speech production of
learners. Research has yet to find out what strategies are used by learners in oral speech production. To contribute to
this ongoing debate, the present study examined activation of sociopragmatic, pragmalinguistic, and content
knowledge strategies employed by learners in pre-task planning time to produce answers. Ten M.A. students and
Ph.D. candidates majoring in TEFL gave their answers to oral request and refusal DCTs through think-aloud
protocol. The results revealed that the pre-task planning time caused the participants to activate a high degree of
sociopragmatic, pragmalinguistic, and content knowledge awareness. Therefore, implementation of planning time in
speaking tests may help individuals to produce more fluent and socially appropriate utterances.

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International Journal of English Language Teaching ISSN 2329-7913 (Print) ISSN 2329-7921 (Online)

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