Cigarette and water pipe smoking patterns among hospitalized men with a cardiovascular disease diagnosis

Rami Azmi Elshatarat, Marguerite M. Engler, Nancy A. Stotts, Erika Sivarajan Froelicher


Background: Smoking is the most preventable cause of death worldwide. Despite the high prevalence of smoking and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Jordan, little is known about smoking in hospitalized patients with CVD.

Objectives: To describe the perceptions, history, and patterns about cigarette and water pipe smoking in hospitalized patients with CVD in Jordan.

Methods: Across-sectional design and convenience sampling method were used to recruit a total of 112 men who were hospitalized with CVD. A structured interview was used to obtain the data.

Results: The subjects were men, and the majorities were middle-aged, married, highly educated, and employed. About 12% of the subject had major depression. Most of the men (91%) were daily cigarette smokers. The majority of subjects reported that smoking was allowed inside their home (89.3%) and in the presence of children (64%). About 43% of subjects smoked >20 cigarettes per day and 63% of subjects smoked their first cigarette within 30 minutes after waking.  Most of the water pipe smokers (66.7%) preferred to smoke their water pipe while socializing with friends. More cigarette smokers (77%) than water pipe smokers (40%) believed that smoking is addictive. A logistic regression analysis showed that men with less than high school education (OR: 4.18, 95% CI: 1.16, 15.13), and who smoked more than 20 cigarettes per day (OR: 7.34, 95% CI: 2.53, 21.33) were inclined to smoke their first cigarette within 30 minutes after awakening in the morning (high nicotine dependence); suggesting that they were addicted.

Conclusion: Smoking is highly prevalent among hospitalized patients with CVD. Strategies are needed to screen these patients for smoking status. Concerted efforts are needed to implement tailored smoking cessation programs with education, counseling, and pharmacological support.


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Journal of Nursing Education and Practice

ISSN 1925-4040 (Print)   ISSN 1925-4059 (Online)

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