Nursing interventions to promote smoking cessation during pregnancy: An integrative review

Tanya Kintz, Carely Pryor, Holly Shemami, Suha Al-Oballi Kridli


Background: Smoking during their pregnancy or even through a portion of the pregnancy put the unborn child at risk for many complications during pregnancy and after delivery. Teaching smoking cessation is vital to women of childbearing age. Smoking cessation provides immediate and long-term benefits for pregnant women and their children.

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the degree of variability in the methodological approaches and theoretical frameworks of behavioral intervention for smoking cessation during pregnancy.

Methods: The design selected for this research is integrative review. Twenty-four articles were reviewed. The inclusion criteria were: (a) studies published between 2000 and 2013, (b) studies published in the English language, (c) a smoking cessation intervention program that targeted pregnant women, and (d) measurement of smoking status after a smoking cessation intervention was implemented. A data extraction tool developed for the purpose of this study utilizing the frameworks of Cooper (1984), and Stetler and colleagues (1998).

Results: Seventy percent of the reviewed studies reported either smoking cessation or a reduction in smoking as a result of participating in a smoking cessation program. The reviewed studies confirmed that smoking cessation interventions should begin at the beginning of pregnancy, as early pregnancy is a peak opportunity for education. It is highly beneficial if the interventions last throughout the woman’s pregnancy to ensure smoking cessation through the duration of the post-partum period.

Conclusion: The majority of the reviewed interventions proved to be highly beneficial with the reduction in smoking or smoking cessation. Additional research is needed to evaluate individual treatment modalities using a side-by-side comparison.


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Journal of Nursing Education and Practice

ISSN 1925-4040 (Print)   ISSN 1925-4059 (Online)

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