Prevalence and risk factors of depression and diabetes- related emotional distress in patients with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional study

Anita T. Faber-Wildeboer, Harmieke van Os-Medendorp, Adriaan Kooy, Bernadette Sol – de Rijk


Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depression and diabetes-related distress, and their associated risk factors, in patients with type 2 diabetes attending a diabetes center of a Dutch general hospital.

Methods: A cross-sectional study of 147 adults with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes during the period January-May 2011. Data on depression and diabetes-related distress rates were collected using the WHO-5 and PAID self-reported questionnaires. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed.

Results: The prevalence of poor well-being (WHO-5 score < 28-50 >) was 9.6 % and that of depression (WHO-5 score ≤ 28) was 12.9 %. Significant risk factors for depression were diabetes-related distress, stress due to life events in the past 12 months, female gender, and educational level.  The prevalence of diabetes-related distress (PAID score ≥ 33) was 8.8 %, and significant risk factors were well-being and HbA1C levels.

Conclusions: While the prevalence of depression in the overall Dutch population is approximately 6.2%,  the prevalence of depression or diabetes-related distress in patients with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes attending a Dutch diabetescenter ,  is approximately 20%. Findings support the routine screening of patients with diabetes for depression and diabetes-related distress. In addition to well-known demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors, stress due to life events in the past 12 months was identified as a risk factor of depression. The diabetes nurse specialists (DNSs) play a key role in counseling the process of behavioral change and supporting self-management in their patients. Paying attention to significant risk factors may be valuable for DNSs to detect and monitor psychological distress; which may improve treatment outcomes.

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Journal of Nursing Education and Practice

ISSN 1925-4040 (Print)   ISSN 1925-4059 (Online)

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