Infections are a frequent causes of serious diseases among cancer patients especially those with impairment in cell mediated immunity like bone transplant recipients, and those with hematological malignancy diseases.
Management of cancer often employs the use of more intensive chemotherapeutic regimens resulting in prolonged neutropenia and increased risk of infection.
Much effort has been devoted to identifying and treating, bacterial and fungal infections associated with fever and neutropenia. This effort usually involves hospitalization for empiric administration of intravenous antimicrobial drugs, even though most bacterial blood cultures remain negative; 40%–70% of such febrile episodes have no identifiable source. Some viral infections, such as those with herpes simplex or varicella zoster viruses, are associated with disease that can be serious and even fatal in pediatric oncology patients. Most episodes of fever are unexplained and assumed to be viral in nature.
Therefore, introduction into clinical use of potent antimicrobial therapy and rapid diagnostic tests has resulted in development of efficient management strategies against infections which in turn helps in improvement quality of life of patients with hematological malignancies.
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